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What is Zakat-ul Khumus? Is there any Zakah if someone found a treasure?

الجواب حامداومصليا
The word Khumus خمس is an Arabic word and it means fifth. The normal percentage for Zakah that applies to a Muslim's wealth is 2.5% but there are certain other percentages that apply to certain categories of wealth as well.
There is tenth that is known as Usher and there is also the fifth which is known as Khumus.
The Khumus applies only to that wealth which found in the ground. If the wealth that is found buried in the ground was buried by someone then it is called Kanz and that wealth which grows naturally inside the ground is known as Ma'din such as mines of gold, silver, iron etc...
If a Muslim discovers a mine of some mineral of such a solid substance that it would melt if it is heated such as iron, gold, sliver, mercury etc... then one should determine the ownership of that piece of land. If that piece of land is owned then is it owned by an individual or by all Muslims commonly? In any scenario, 1/5 of this treasure will go to Baitul-Maal (Islamic government) and rest will be for the one who found it. If the piece of land is owned by the Islamic government then all of go the government as the government is for all people. In places where there is no proper government or authority, one should voluntarily donate and distribute 1/5 of earnings among poor people.
If the mineral is found within the boundary of someone's house then all if it will be owned by the owner and no share will be given to the government.
And Allah knows best.
Mufti Ikram ul Haq
Fatwa Center of America
اتّفق الفقهاء على أنّ الواجب في الرّكاز الخمس ، لقول النّبيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم : { العجماء جبار وفي الرّكاز الخمس } . قال ابن المنذر : لا نعلم أحدًا خالف في هذا الحديث إلاّ الحسن فإنّه فرّق بين ما يوجد في أرض الحرب وأرض العرب ، فقال : فيما يوجد في أرض الحرب الخمس ، وفيما يوجد في أرض العرب الزّكاة . قال المالكيّة : محلّ تخميسه ما لم يحتج لنفقةٍ كبيرةٍ وإلاّ فيزكّى . قال مالك : الأمر الّذي لا اختلاف فيه عندنا ، والّذي سمعته من أهل العلم يقولون : إنّ الرّكاز إنّما هو دفن يوجد من دفن الجاهليّة ما لم يطلب بمالٍ . وأمّا ما طلب بمالٍ كثيرٍ فليس بركازٍ ، إنّما فيه الزّكاة بعد وجود شروط الزّكاة حيث استأجر على العمل ، لا إن عمل بنفسه أو عبيده فلا يخرج عن الرّكاز . وأمّا أربعة أخماسه فلواجده .